Layer-1 is the term that is used to describe the underlying main blockchain network. For instance, Ethereum can be thought of as a layer-1 protocol since it acts as the underlying blockchain system on top of which other DApps can be deployed.

Layer-2 (L2), however, refers to a secondary framework that is built on top of an existing blockchain system. The main goal of these layer-2 protocols is to improve the transaction speed and scalability of blockchain networks. In turn, layer-2 solutions aim to spur wider levels of adoption by improving the scalability of existing blockchain frameworks.

L2 solutions are often referred to as "off-chain" scaling solutions since processes associated with them do not occur on the main chain.

Most layer-2 solutions are centered around a server or cluster of servers, each of which may be referred to as a node, validator, operator, sequencer, or block producer. A specific L2 instance may be shared by many applications or it may be dedicated to supporting one unique application.

Advantages of Layer-2 Solutions

Layer-2 solutions allow blockchain networks to achieve higher levels of speed without actually having to make any significant change to the main chain. So, the main chain is able to retain its properties of high security while the layer-2 solution provides a new avenue to optimize the speed of the transactions.

Layer-2 solutions can also be re-structured without impacting the properties of the main chain.

Types of Layer-2 Solutions

Over the years, a number of layer-2 frameworks have been introduced. A few of these are highlighted below.

State Channels

The state channel is a temporary two-way communication channel between two distinct participants in the network. Operations are performed on these state channels are then reported back to the main chain.

The Bitcoin Lightning Network for example is based on state channels. This means that Bitcoin transactions can occur faster with the help of the Lightning Network without having to change the main Bitcoin network itself.


A sidechain is a separate blockchain which runs in parallel to the main chain and operates independently. It is connected to the main chain by a two-way bridge, which allows assets to seamlessly move between the main chain and sidechain.

The Ethereum Plasma network consists of sidechains that help to improve the scalability of Ethereum.


Zero knowledge rollups, also known as ZK-Rollups, bundle hundreds of transfers off-chain into a single transaction via a smart contract. From the data submitted, the smart contract can verify all of the transfers that are included.

Optimistic Rollups

Optimistic rollups use a sidechain that sit in parallel to the main Ethereum chain. They can offer improvements with respect to scalability because they do not carry out computations themselves. Instead, after a transaction they propose the new state to the main chain.

Closing Remarks

Layer-2 solutions allow blockchains to improve their scalability without impacting the operations of the main chain.

Injective is currently pioneering a novel layer-2 solution in order to bring forth a new era in decentralized trading that is able to meet the needs of both retail and institutional users.

Have any questions? Ask us on our Reddit under “Injective Learn” and one of our teammates will get back to you

Have any topics you'd like us to cover, or have any feedback? Let us know

About Injective Protocol
Injective Protocol is the first layer-2 decentralized exchange protocol that unlocks the full potential of decentralized derivatives and borderless DeFi. Injective Protocol enables fully decentralized trading without any restrictions, allowing individuals to trade on any derivative market of their choosing. Injective Protocol is backed by a prominent group of stakeholders including Pantera Capital, one of the most renowned venture capital firms in the world, and the leading cryptocurrency exchange, Binance.

Want to learn more about Injective? Join us via the channels below!

Website | Telegram | Discord| Blog | Twitter | Learn | Youtube | Facebook | LinkedIn | Reddit | Instagram | TikTok | Weibo